If appearance really appears, it is not nothing, and is therefore part of reality ….. If appearance does not really appear, why trouble our heads about it? But perhaps someone will say: “Appearance does not really appear, but it appears to appear.” This will not help, for we shall ask again: “Does it really appear to appear, or only apparently appear to appear?” Sooner or later, if appearance is even to appear to appear, we must reach something that really appears, and is therefore part of reality. Plato would not dream of denying that there appear to be many beds, although there is only one real bed, namely the one made by God. But he does not seem to have faced the implications of the fact that there are many appearances, and that this many-ness is part of reality.

from Bertrand Russell, The History of Western Philosophy, Chapter XV (1945)

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